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Jantar-Mantar

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Jantar-Mantar

Till the end of 12thcentury Maharaja Sawai Jaysingh (1686 – 1743) came to light. In approx 1719 Dilishwar Mohammad Singh gave Sawai Jaysingh the high rank of army in Malwa. Jaysingh was a big pride of Indian culture. He had so much interest in astrological studies from his childhood that he studied principle religious Indian books with other present available European and Arabic numerological religious specialized books. By fortune in this period famous astrologer Jaganath Samrat existed. He became the Hindu scholar of Maharaja Jaysingh’s assembly. He translated Arabic language astrology religious novel named Ijasti into Sanskrit on the order of Jaysingh. Similarly he also translated Greek scholar Yuklid’s Arabic geometry into Sanskrit. He also composed sidhant holy book on the name of samrat sidhant. Sawai Jaysingh felt that planets lunar mansion’s sky and numerological state has been deviated. Thus with the motive of giving correct direction to religious science he created observatories in different places for carrying on Vedas. Firstly in 1719 he constructed observatory in Ujjain, after this in Jaipur, Mathura, Varanasi and Delhi. Ujjain’s observatory is still in working conditions. In this observatories astronomy instrument, Brantivrat instrument, Chakra instrument, Dakshinotar vrat instrument, Dhigansh instrument, Unnatansh instrument, Kapal instrument, Nadi valay instrument, Bhitti instrument, Star sign instrument, other instruments were constructed by Jaysingh by his own ideas under the guidance of pundit Jagannath Samrat. There are four instruments in Ujjaini observatory –

  1. Samrat instrument, 2. Nadi valay instrument, 3. Digansh instrument, 4. bhitti  instrument

The fifth Shanku instrument was constructed later by observatory’s superintendent and famous numerologist G.S Apte. He also wrote karan holy book name “Sarvanandkaran”.

Samrat Instrument – Like other instrument names are given on the basis of their work, design and formation. It feels like samrat yantra name is given on the name of Raja Jaysingh assembly’s Pundit Jagannath samrat. This is the most important instrument of the observatory and even if no other instrument is there, all necessary ved can be taken from this particular instrument. Like time, Earth revolution, Planets positions, Yamotra lines, Marriage time etc.

Its length is 22 feet long and stairs length is 47’ – 6 “. This stair is been constructed on the south and its angle from the earth is equal to Ujjain’s latitude that is 23 degrees - 11’, with this, pole star appears strait from the stairs. Like this the line of stairs becomes equal to the axis of the earth. On its both side 90 degrees one fourth circles have been made. Its radius is 6 ‘– 1’. These two rings become equal to the circumference of the earth. Now circumference that is on the two circles the suns and other planets momentum can be seen on nadi valay or on the lines. Signs made on this rings are of first moment. After renovation in approx 1923, hours was changed to minutes. With this 3 parts of 1 minute that is 20 seconds time can be known by the shadow of the sun. Signs made on the wall of stairs can help in knowing the revolution of planets that which planet is how much far to the north or south of the earth’s axis.

Near this instrument with date and instruction, one table is placed, in this difference of everyday time of current locations time and Indian standard time is given in minutes/seconds. By adding this to time displayed on instrument, Indian standard time can be calculated.

Nadi Valay Yantra – As the name suggests this nadi valay instrument that is celestial circumference equivalent is constructed. To the south of Samrat instrument this instrument is constructed on 4 feet long platform. Its length is 7 and breadth is 1-6. This instrument’s north part circumference is tilted towards south part and south’s part circumference is tilted towards north part. This tilt is equivalent to the latitude of Ujjain.  In middle of both side of instrument north and south’s two nails has been placed equivalent to earth face. In both parts lines of minutes and seconds is also made.  The shadow of the nail falls on the watch of nadi valay with which time is known like Samrat yantra. The main motive of this instrument is to know whether some planet or constellation is in the north part or south part. By looking from your eyes on its end the planet at the other part cannot be seen. When sun is on the north part the south part will not be lighted. Similarly when sun is in south part (22 September – 21 March), than north part is not lighted. When sun is on the equator that is on 21 March and 22 September the shadow of the nails on the instrument is vanished. On this sun is on equator axis.

Digansh yantra – Constructed on same axis two walls is constructed; this instrument is situated to the east of the nadi valay instrument. The radius of outer wall is 36’10” and radius of inner wall is 24’3”. With this instrument altitude of planets that is distance from north point to east or west point and its distance from the horizon is estimated.  On the inner wall there are two dots which display east and west. At the time of Jaysingh on the basis of numbers on the walls ved of azimuth were calculated. But now in between there is a round ring of 4 feet long and 4 feet of breadth this is focused on round walls. On this platform also azimuth in inner wall is given. On the focus of platform 4 feet iron rod is placed which is known as gnomon. On this one turiya yantra is placed with which ved of azimuth and altitude of planets is taken. The information placed on instrument is as below - by placing turiya yantra on the iron rod of round platform one can find altitude (length from horizon) and azimuth (angular distance from east west direction). Make turiya yantra static in a way that two holes made in it and focus of planets remain strait from the eyes. Rotating needle placed on cyclic turiya instrument entails the azimuth. Where there is thread on the side of the turiya instrument the numbers there is altitudes.

Bitthi chitra – This instrument is created on exact south direction as a wall. This is created on the south of the observatory on the bank of Shipra. This instrument is based on yamyotr vrat. The length of this wall is 25’ and breath is 33’. On the top side of wall at north and south angles one – one nail is placed. Keeping each nail as a focus on the north of the wall one-one circle of 90 degree from each radius is made; on this marble plate 0 to 90 degrees lines are drawn. When sun falls on this bitthi it is said to be Madhya kaal.  At this time where the thread placed on nails of the instrument points on the round circle displays the current position of sun, this displays the position of planets that is sun is how much tilted from north or south of the meridian. With this natansh current location’s altitude, sun’s revolution, rains and many other important things can be known. Like sun the total course of any planet and its revolution can be known through this instrument.

Shanku Yantra -   On the north side of samrat instrument this instrument was placed under the supervision of existing director Shri G.S Apte.  Equivalent to horizontal diameter of 16 feet, 1 and a half foot tall round platform is made. In its roundness altitude etc signs are made.  From the origin of its gnomon to its north and west two red stone plates are made, which explains the directions. To the north of gnomon one easy red line is made. To north and west of this easy line small and big three lines are made. On this red line shadow of gnomon roams. The longest day (21 June) is displayed by the roaming shadow of the gnomon on longest line and smallest day (22 December) is recognized by the roaming shadow of gnomon on smallest line. Lines in the middle display the increase and decrease in days. Like other instruments the sun state can also be known from the shadow on this instrument. With this instrument also time, azimuth, altitude and auspicious days can be known easily. By seeing the way of circumference of shadow of gnomon the circumference of earth revolution is felt.

This observatory remained neglected for about 200 years. In year 1904 in the company of Lokmanya Tilak at the akhil bhartiya astrologer meeting held in Mumbai, Ujjain’s Sidhantvagish Jyotirvidh Maharaj Narayan ji and Shri G.S Apte came. On their suggestion and request to Madharav Sindhya in 1923 it was inaugurated and constructed again. Shri apte and shri Purshotam Sharma who was the president of observatory, at their time ved were taken formally. After wards it was again neglected. In the meaning that its use is not done properly, now for simhastha 2004 it is again being cleaned and premises are being made concrete. Here in vikram university astrology department has also been started, in which M.A second year batch has passed this year only. Thus it is expected that in future its optimum use will not only be done by the tourist but also by the students of astrology, so that our ancient knowledge do not goes under extinct and we do not only remain looking other for natikal almanek . We can also be free from following established Ujjain’s religious knowledge.